Thrale/Thrall history

Henry Thrale, M.P.

Henry Thrale, M.P.
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Male 1730 - 1781  (~ 57 years)


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  • Name Henry Thrale 
    Suffix M.P. 
    Birth Between 1724 and 1730  Harrow Corner, Southwark, Surrey, England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Address:
    Harrow Corner 
    Gender Male 
    Education Abt 1733  Eton, Buckinghamshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Eton Colleage
    Residence Abt 1737  Stowe House, Buckinghamshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    As a child, Henry was sent to stay with Richard Temple, 1st Viscount Cobham at Stowe
    Education 4 Jun 1744  Oxford, Oxfordshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Matriculated from University College, giving age as 15. 
    Note abt. 1746  Paris, Île-de-France, France Find all individuals with events at this location 
    As a young man, he travelled on the European continent to Paris, Rome, Venice, Florence with Lord William Henry Lyttleton Westcote (1724-1808), the expenses of both being met by the generous £1,000 annual allowance that Henry received from his father. 
    Godparent / sponsor Oct 1749 
    Henry Thrale was godfather to John Crutchley 
    Adopted 29 Mar 1752 
    After receiving bequests, Ralph Thrale became Guardian (akin to adoption) to Jeremiah Crutchley aged 6 after the death of his father (his mother died earlier), on account of their friendship initiated through their shared interest in brewing (Crutchley was a coppersmith specialising in brewing equipment).

    Ralph died when Jeremiah was aged 13, and Henry Thrale became his guardian. 
    Physical Description According to James Boswell, Henry Thrale was …
    Tall, well-proportioned, and stately in appearance. He was deeply religious and a good sportsman.
    Land 10 Apr 1758  Crowmarsh Battle Farm, Oxfordshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Ralph Thrale MP bought the Crowmarsh Estate for £24,000 from the trustees of the Duke of Wharton to expand his landholdings and secure a prestigious country estate. On Ralph's death, it passed to his son Henry Thrale, and following Henry's death, was sold in 1783 to Thomas Walker for £18,000. 
    Property 10 Apr 1758  Streatham Park, Streatham, Surrey, England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Property 10 Apr 1758  78 West Street, Brighton, Sussex, England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Inherited from his father Ralph Thrale MP
    Occupation 10 Apr 1758  Anchor Brewery, Southwark, Surrey, England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Inherited from his father Ralph Thrale MP
    Anchor brewery plaque
    Anchor brewery plaque
    Park Street, Southwark
    Note 13 Jul 1763 
    A few months before his marriage, Henry was robbed by highwayman, Samuel Beaton, whilst travelling between London and Streatham in his coach. He was robbed of 13 guineas, his watch and silver shoe buckles. On 13 July 1763, Beaton was found guilty by trial at the Old Bailey and hanged on 12 August 1763 on Kennington Common. 
    Note 10 Jan 1765 
    Dr. Samuel Johnson's close friendship with the Thrale family.
    Dr. Samuel Johnson's close friendship with the Thrale family.
    Samuel Johnson’s close friendship with Henry and Hester Thrale began in 1765, declined in 1781 after Henry’s death and mostly ended 1784 just before Hester married Gabriel Piozzi.
    Election 20 Nov 1765  Southwark, Surrey, England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Member of Parliament. 20 Nov 1765 -13 Sep 1980. 
    Henry Thrale's parliamentary career
    Henry Thrale's parliamentary career
    His political view, electoral addresses and results.
    Election 1775 
    Henry Thrale's successful election to the City of London Corporation
    Henry Thrale's successful election to the City of London Corporation
    In parallel with his 1765-1780 national parliamentary service, Henry was elected to positions for the regional City of London from 1775 to 1781.
    Physical Description Jan 1776 
    Cartoon of Henry Thrale, January 1776.
    Cartoon of Henry Thrale, January 1776.
    From 'Macaronies, Characters, Caricatures' by Mary Darly.
    Hobbies
    Pets of Henry & Hester Thrale
    Pets of Henry & Hester Thrale
    The Thrales' love of animals is evident in both their writings. The Thrales' pets including dogs, cats, birds, chickens, ducks, rabbits, an aviary (including canaries, finches, and parrots) and a monkey, were an important part of their family, and they brought them a great deal of joy.
    Hobbies Croydon, Surrey, England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Kept a pack of hounds and a hunting box near Croydon. 
    Note 1 Apr 1777 
    His death was falsely reported by newspapers and this threw James Boswell into …
    a state of very uneasy uncertainty.
     
    Land 1778  Bardsey Island, Gwynedd, Wales Find all individuals with events at this location 
    In 1778 Henry Thrale considered - but did not complete - the purchase of Bardsey Island. 
    Note 26 Nov 1778 
    Fanny (Frances) Burney first met the Thrales at a dinner party at her father’s house on 26 November 1778, aged 26. She became a close friend of the Thrale family
    Fanny Burney's relationship with the Thrales
    Fanny Burney's relationship with the Thrales
    Frances (Fanny) Burney (1752-1840) was an English novelist and diarist. She was the second daughter of Dr. Charles Burney, a music historian, and his wife, Esther. She is best known for her novels, including:

    Burney first met the Thrales at a dinner party at her father’s house on 26 November 1778, aged 26. She became a close friend of the Thrales and her diary provides insight into their lives at Streatham Park.
    Medical 8/11 Jun 1779 
    On the 8th or 11th of June 1779, Henry visited his youngest sister Susannah to comfort her after the death of her husband, Arnold Nesbitt MP, and hear the will, of which Henry was an executor. There Henry suffered his first stroke. Hester later speculated that this was brought on by the shock of hearing about Nesbitt’s insolvency which had potentially calamitous implications for Henry.

    Hester Thrale wrote …
    Mrs Nesbitt is very silly She always was; but any fool might have had Wit enough to send for a Surgeon one wd think when they saw a Man drop down in a Fit: but No; She called the Carriage to bring him home-& so lost Time in wch He might have been bled: We were forced to send back to London for help, little Kitchen1 could not be found; the Apothecary of the Village. Bromfield2 came in two Hours, but two Hours is an Age in such a Case. What a Natural that Mrs Nesbitt is! Duce take her!

    Hester later wrote in Thraliana …
    11: June 1779.] Here is a dreadful Event indeed in the Thraliana! Mr Thrale suddenly struck with the palsy as he sate at Dinner sister Nesbitt last Tuesday: his Brain is apparently loaded if not for ever injured by the blow. poor dear Master! this day I been married sixteen Years and eight Months: & last Tuesday was he brought me home apparently Paralytick.

    I am not yet able to write about it I see, though he has mended ever since the Attack; thanks to Bromfield who first administered Relief, & afterwards called in both Huck3Heberden. I’m confident he will recover, he has Youth and Strength, and general Health on his Side; but his Temper is strangely altered: so vigilant; so jealous, so careful lest one should watch him, & so unfit to be left unwatched.—Oh Lord have mercy on us! this is a horrible Business indeed. five little Girls too, & breeding again, & Fool enough to be proud of it! ah Ideot! what should I want more Children for God knows only to please my Husband, who now perhaps may be much better without them.

    —Distress shews one’s Friends; Seward4 was the first to fly to our Assistance5; fetch Physicians, carry Reports, turn out troublesome Enquirers, attend Mr Thrale in all his Operations: Dear Creature how kind he is!

    Johnson is away-down at Lichfield or Derby, or God knows where, something always happens when he is away; but Mr Seward has supplied every body’s neglect. I expected more Attention from Burney!6 Murphy's a dissipated Rogue & loves his Friends while they can talk & hear; but Dr Burney’s Indifference disgusts me.

    I kept Sir Philip7 away, or he would have done all in his Power. he has sent, & written, & run about with honest and unaffected Agitation, but I shall never love Doctor Burney as I have loved Him, for there I expected Kindness, & deserved it-his Daughter8 has behav’d better than he, but Seward9 & Mrs D’Avenant), daughter of Sir Lynch Salusbury Cotton, later Lady Corbet. shew’d the true Concern; they came directly & have staid with me ever since: Seward’s Sensibility & Attention is the Cordial of my Heart-a Friend in Distress is the sweetest of Things—he came I remember when my Son died.—Good Creature! he would not have come to a Concert or a Dinner, but when there is Sorrow to be assistedalleviated rather; then he Can come; & put off a Journey to Cornwall, by way of devoting himself wholly to the Duties of Friendship.

    Sir Philip Jennings Clerke is a Conquest I shall long be proud of, he is a Conquest made by Virtue; his Regard for me is boundless, & it is founded in a Notion that I am better & wiser than other Women are; while I continue good & wise therefore, I shall have his Esteem, & he is an extremely amiable respectable Character.— Touched by God’s Grace

    I think in the latter part of his Life, & brought to a Conviction of Sin by the Affliction of his Daughter’s untimely Death, he flies to Religion & to Friendship for Comfort, & he shall never want one to speak Peace to his Soul while Life is lent to H:L:T.10

    NB—I will make him leave off wearing Black so; ’tis a Singularity that can do no good; is I should fear displeasing to God, & at best but an ill Compliment to his other Children:—

    Hester wrote in Thraliana on 22 June 1779 …
    Mr Thrale has recovered his paralytick Stroke: Doctor Heberden thinks him now wholly out of Danger, as so much Time has elapsed, & the Attack has not been renewed. his Head is as good as ever, his Spirits indeed are low, but they will mend:

    few People live in such a State of Preparation for Eternity I think, as my dear Master has done since I have been connected with him; regular in his publick & private devotions, constant at the Sacrament, Temperate in his Appetites, moderate is Passions-he has less to apprehend from a sudden Summons than any Man I have known, who was young and gay, & high in health & Fortune like him.

    -I think he will have another of these Strokes sometime, but perhaps I may not live to see the Day; let us not then anticipate Misfortune, nor when God sends a chearful hour-refrain.
    1. A “young surgeon” who was “not very experienced.” who lived in Streatham.↩︎
    2. An “older and more experienced surgeon” who was “the only surgeon in the village who was qualified to treat serious conditions.”↩︎
    3. Huck is a more experienced surgeon who was called in by Dr Bromfield.↩︎
    4. William Seward 1747-1799 was an anecdotist and son of a wealthy brewer of the firm Calvert and Seward.”↩︎
    5. Seward came at five o’clock in the morning.”↩︎
    6. Dr. Charles Burney.”↩︎
    7. Sir Philip Jennings-Clerke.”↩︎
    8. Fanny Burney.”↩︎
    9. William Seward.”↩︎
    10. Hester Lynch Thrale.”↩︎
     
    Medical 19/21 Feb 1780 
    On 19 or 21 February 17801, Henry Thrale suffered a second stroke and received the contemporary medical treatment of ‘bleeding’. He was delirious for five days, only speaking again when receiving a visit from Sophy Streatfeild. Hester wrote in Thraliana on 13 August 1780 …
    My Master is got into most riotous Spirits somehow; he will go here & there, & has a hundred Projects in his Head, so gay, so wild; I wish no harm may come on’t.
    1. Thraliana states Monday 21 February on page 432, Dr Johnson’s Own Dear Master states Saturday 19 February on page 212.”↩︎
     
    Medical 10 Sep 1780 
    Hester wrote in Thraliana on 29 August 1780
    Mr Thrale would go to Mitchel Grove1 the Seat of Sir John Shelley; I did not half like the Expedition, but Pepys2 bled him first 13 ounces, & gave some rough Medcines too—We just pulled up in Time the Dr says, or here would have been another Stroke.

    On Sunday 10th September 1780, Henry had minor a third stroke while canvassing - ultimately unsuccessfully - constituents at St. George’s church.

    1. Michelgrove House, Sussex.↩︎
    2. Sir Lucas Pepys - physician to the King 1742-1830.”↩︎
     
    Will 17 Mar 1781 
    Henry Thrale's will
    Henry Thrale's will
    Henry Thrale died on 4 April 1781 between 5 am and 6 am. The will, dated 17 March 1781, was read by the male executors on 5 April 1781. his wife, Hester, was later informed of its provisions by Samuel Johnson.

    Executors

    Medical 2 Apr 1781  Grosvenor Square, Middlesex, England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Hester Thrale wrote …
    On the Sunday 1st of April I went to hear the Bishop of Peterborough preach at May Fair Chapel: & though the Sermon had nothing in it particularly pathetic, I could not keep my Tears within my Eyes: I spent the Evening however at Lady Rothes’s, and was chearful; found Sir John Lade, Johnson and Boswell with Mr Thrale at my return to the Square: on Monday Morning Mr Evans came to breakfast, Sir Philip and Dr Johnson to Dinner – so did Baretti: Mr Thrale eat voraciously–so voraciously – that encouraged by Jebb & Pepys who had charged me so to do – l checked him rather severely, & Mr Johnson added these remarkable Words:
    Sir—after the Denuniciation of your Physicians this Morning, such eating is little better than Suicide
    He did not however desist, & Sir Philip said he eat apparently in Defiance of Controul, & that it was better for us to say nothing to him: Johnson observed that he thought so too, & that he spoke more from a Sense of Duty than a Hope of Success. Baretti & them two spent the Evening with me, & I was enumerating the People who were to meet the Indian Ambassadors on the Wednesday — I had been to Negri’s & bespoke an elegant Entertainment. 
    Medical 3 Apr 1781  Grosvenor Square, Middlesex, England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Hester Thrale wrote …
    On the next day Tuesday 3d Mrs Hinchliffe called on me in the Morning to go see Webber’s Drawings of Francesco Roncaglia,: Sea Rareties–we met the Smelts, the Ords, & numberless Blues there, & displayed our Pedantry at our Pleasure: going & coming however I quite teized Mrs Hinchliffe with my lowspirited Terrors about Mr Thrale, who had not all this while one Symptom worse than he had had for Months; tho’ the Physicians this Tuesday Morning agreed that a Continuation of such dinners as he had lately made, would soon dispatch a Life so precarious & uncertain. When I came home to dress–Piozzi,–who was always admitted to the Toilette, & sate in the next Room teaching Hester to sing; began lamenting that he was engaged to Mrs Locke on the following Evening when I had such a World of Company to meet these fine Orientals: he had however engaged Roncaglia & Sacchini to begin with–and would make a point of coming himself at nine o’Clock if possible.

    I gave him the Money I had collected for his Benefit 35£ I remember, it was—a Bankers Note, and I burst out o’crying & said I was sure I should not go to it: the Man was shocked, & wondered what I meant; Nay—says I—‘tis mere lowness of Spirits, for Mr Thrale is very well now, & gone out in his Carriage to spit Cards as I call’d it—sputar le Carte.

    Just then came a Letter from Dr Pepys, insisting to speak with me in the Afternoon; & tho’ there was nothing very particular in the Letter considering our Intimacy—I burst out o’crying again, read the Letter to Piozzi who could not understand it, & threw myself into an Agony, saying I was sure Mr Thrale would dye. The tenderhearted Italian was affected, bid me not despair so, but recollect some precepts he had heard Dr Johnson give me one Day; & then turn’d to me with a good deal of Expression in his Manner, rather too much-it affected me.—and sung Rasserena il tuo bel Ciglio &c &c Well! he left us in a quarter of an hour, & Miss Owen came to Dinner, and Mr Thrale came home so well! & in such Spirits! he had invited more People to my Concert or Conversatione or musical party of the next day, & was delighted to think what a Show we should make. He eat however more than enormously;—six things the Day before, & eight on this Day, with Strong Beer in such Quantities! the very Servants were frighted, & when Pepys came in the Evening he said this could not last—either there must be legal Restraint or certain Death. Dear Mrs Byron[^8] spent ye evening with me, & Mr Crutcheley came from Sunninghill to be ready for the morrow’s Flash. Johnson was at the Bishop of Chester’s.

    I went down in the Course of the Afternoon to see after my master as usual, and found him, not asleep, but sitting on his Bed with his Legs up—because as he express’d it. I kiss’d him, & said how good he was to be so careful of himself—he enquired who was above; but had no Disposition to come up Stairs. Miss Owen & Mrs Byron now took their Leave; the Dr had been gone about 20 Minutes when Hester went down to see her Papa, & found him on the Floor. what’s the meaning of this? says She in an Agony—I chuse it, replies Mr Thrale firmly;
    I lie so o’purpose;
    She ran however to call his Valet who was gone out—happy to leave him so particularly well as he thought—when my Servant went instead, Mr Thrale bid him be gone, in a firm Tone: & added that he was very well, & chose to lie so. by this Time however Mr Crutchley was ran down at Hetty’s Intreaty, & I had sent to fetch Pepys back; he was got but into Upper Brook Street, & found his Friend in a most violent Fit of the Apoplexy from which he only recovered to relapse into another, everyone growing weaker as his Strength grew less till six o’Clock on Wednesday Morning 4: April 1781. Sir Richd Jebb, who was fetched at the beginning of the Distress, seeing Death certain, quitted the House without even prescribing; Pepys did all that could be done, & Johnson who was sent for at 11 o’Clock never left him, for while breath remain’d he still hoped. I ventured in once, & saw them cutting his Clothes off to bleed him, but I saw no more.
     
    Note Henry Thrale and Jeremiah Crutchley ran the Thrale and Crutchley Copper Company. After Thrale’s in 1781, Crutchley continued to be a leading manufacturer of brewing equipment. 
    Death 4 Apr 1781  Grosvenor Square, Middlesex, England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Cause: his strokes were largely caused by Henry's voracious appetite for large indulgent meals, a 
    • Between 5 and 6am, with his wife, Hester, and Dr. Samuel Johnson by his side.
    Anchor Brewery, 1781 sale.
    Anchor Brewery, 1781 sale.
    Deed of sale of Anchor Brewery on 31 May 1781.
    Note 5 Apr 1781 
    The day after Henry's death, his wife wrote …
    The next Morning early I drove to Streatham but finding myself pursued thither by officious Friendship, I ran forward to Brighthelmstone where Mr Scrase, who like me had lost all he cared for in earnest; was a comfortable & useful Companion. There I had Time to collect my scattered Thoughts, to revise my past Life, & resolve upon a new one. the best Consolation is the perfect Amity in wch we have lived 17 Years together, the few disputes or Subjects of Complaint either of us have endured from the other, & the Notion I always perswaded myself into, of having been an humble Instrument in the Almighty’s hand-to turn the heart of my Husband towards heaven whither he is gone, & whither I hope one day to follow him.

    He has been very generous to me in his willl, but my being entangled with the Trade perplexes me greatly–perhaps I may rid my hands of it however, perhaps we may sell it without much Loss: my Coadjutors are all willing to assist while I carry it on, and willing to quit when I wish to part with it: never were Men more obliging to be sure, & I am half inclin’d to hope for Happiness once more, when I see their Disposition to comply with my Desire.

    God forbid though that my Pride or Delicacy should so far influence me as to make me quit the Business at any Rate: My Children have a Claim to all that I can do & suffer-yet how will they be benefited by keeping their Money at hazard? Mr Scrase says ’tis Madness to try at carrying on such a Trade with only five Girls; so says Cator, so says Crutcheley: Mr Johnson did wish my Continuance in Business, but I have pretty well cured him of his Wishes; though when I was obliged Yesterday to go & court a dirty Goaler to suffer our Brewhouse to serve his Tap, & when I complained even with Tears to Mr Johnson of the Indignity; Dearest Lady says he your Character is exalted by it; I tell you it advances in Heighth, Yes replied I, it advances indeed, & rises from the Side Box to the upper Gallery.
     
    Burial 11 Apr 1781  Saint Leonards Church, Streatham, Surrey, England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    • The bill for the funeral expenses, including the cost of "6 Men in mourning on horseback, 2 mourning Coaches & Six Horses, and the lining of the pews of St Leonard’s Church in black", amounted in all to £130 5s. 4d. His epitaph was written by Samuel Johnson. In line with the fashion of the day, his friends, were given a mourning ring in a fish skin case.
    Thrale family burial vault
    Thrale family burial vault
    St Leonards, Streatham.
    Henry Thrale's memorial tablet
    Henry Thrale's memorial tablet
    Erected on Friday 20 September 1782. The monument is by Joseph Wilton  R.A. who also made George III's coronation coach. The Latin inscription is by Dr. Samuel Johnson.
    Obituary May 1781 
    Testimonials after the death of Henry Thrale M.P.
    Testimonials after the death of Henry Thrale M.P.
    Note 6 Oct 1782 
    18-months after the death of his good friend Henry Thrale, Dr. Samuel Johnson left Henry Thrale’s library - and family - for the last time, and wrote the prayer …
    Almighty God, Father of all mercy, help me by thy grace, that I may, with humble and sincere thankfulness, remember the comforts and conveniences which I have enjoyed at this place; and that I may resign them with holy submission, equally trusting in thy protection when thou givest, and when thou takest away. Have mercy upon me, O Lord, have mercy upon me. To thy fatherly protection, O Lord, I commend this family. Bless, guide, and defend them, that they may so pass through this world, as finally to enjoy in thy presence everlasting happiness, for Jesus Christ’s sake. Amen.
     
    Note 11 Jul 1783 
    Samuel Johnson wrote to Sir Robert Chambers…
    One great abatement of all miseries was the attention of Mr. Thrale, which from our first acquaintance was never intermitted.
     
    Publication May 1784 
    Account of Henry Thrale's mourning tablet at St Leonards Church
    Account of Henry Thrale's mourning tablet at St Leonards Church
    Reprinted in Gentleman's Magazine in May 1784.
    Notes 
    Person ID I83  UK Thrale family
    Last Modified 23 Jul 2024 

    Father Ralph Thrale, M.P.,   b. 1698, Offley, Hertfordshire, England Find all individuals with events at this locationd. 9 Apr 1758 (Age 60 years) 
    Mother Mary Dabbins   d. Abt 1760 
    Family ID F38  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family Hester Lynch Salusbury,   b. 16 Jan 1741, Bodvel, Caernarvonshire, Wales Find all individuals with events at this locationd. 2 May 1821, Clifton, Gloucestershire, England Find all individuals with events at this location (Age 80 years) 
    Note 1762  Offley, Hertfordshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Henry was invited to Offley Place by Hester’s uncle, Judge Sir Thomas Salusbury and was introduced to Hester Thrale who was aged 20 or 21. Henry was a solid respectable man who was kindly towards Hester and she wrote that Henry was …
    Nearly the handsomest man in England.
    However, she did not want to marry him. Hester appealed to her father upon his return. John Salusbury had no intention of marrying his daughter to Henry, as Henry's father and grandfather had lived in the cottage now being used by his brother, Sir Thomas Salusbury as a dog kennel. John Salusbury quarrelled with his brother Sir Thomas and took his wife and daughter to London. Sir Thomas proposed their marriage whilst her father was away in Ireland with George Montagu-Dunk, 2nd Earl of Halifax, President of the Board of Trade. This was agreed by her mother after uncle Sir Thomas promised to make a settlement in her favour of £5,000 if Hester married Henry. 
    Note 18 Dec 1762 
    Hester's father, John Salusbury died suddenly, leaving:
    • the North Wales Bach-y-graig estate to his wife, and
    • £5,000 to his daughter Hester.

    Hester, later speculated that his death might have been hastened by irritation at her proposed marriage to Henry Thrale; and Sir Thomas’s intention to remarry, as this ultimately resulted in Hester being disinherited from Offley Place. 
    Note 28 Jun 1763 

    Letter of request for a proposal meeting

    Henry wrote to Hester and her mother asking to call on them.
    ;Mr. Thrale presents His most respectful compliments to Mrs. & Miss Salusbury & wishes to God He could of communicated His Sentiments to them last night, which is absolutely impossible for Him to do to any other person breathing; He therefore most ardently begs to see Them at any Hour this afternoon, & he will at all Events immediately enter upon this very interesting Subject, & when once begun, there is no Danger of His wandering upon any other: in short, see them, He must, for He assures them, with the greatest truth & Sincerity, that They have murder’d Peace & Happiness at Home.
    Almost two weeks later they were married. 
    Note 9 Oct 1763 

    Dowry

    Henry Thrale met Hester’s maternal grandfather, Sir Thomas Salusbury and agreed upon Hester’s dowry. It included:

    • £10,000 to Hester from Sir Thomas Salusbury;
    • £700 a year for Hester from her father’s estate;
    • legacies from her mother and aunts worth £3,000;
    • £200 a year from Henry’s Crowmarsh Battle estate. The remainder of farm income went to Henry. The farm would in future be administered by two trustees for a period of 99 years

    On Henry’s death:

    • Hester’s income from Crowmarsh Battle farm would double;
    • she would get a lump sum of £13,400; and
    • provision would be made for trust and inheritances for any children that they may have.
     
    Marriage 11 Oct 1763  Saint Anne's Church, Soho, Middlesex, England Find all individuals with events at this location  [1
    Note Jul 1774  Wales Find all individuals with events at this location 
    From July to September 1774, Dr. Samuel Johnson and the Thrales toured North Wales. For Hester Thrale, the journey was personally significant, revealing cultural tensions with Johnson and influencing her writing. Johnson kept a diary which has since been published.  
    Note 14 Sept 1775  Paris, Île-de-France, France Find all individuals with events at this location 
    The Thrales tour of France, 14 September to 14 November 1775.
    The Thrales tour of France, 14 September to 14 November 1775.
    Henry Thrale, MP, was invited to Paris by his friend Hugh Percy, 1st Duke of Northumberland, who was serving as the British ambassador to France. From September to November 1775, a group embarked on a tour of France, visiting Paris, Versailles, and various monasteries and convents. The traveling party consisted of:

    1. Henry Thrale, the wealthy brewer and Member of Parliament;
    2. Hester Thrale, Henry's wife and a notable diarist;
    3. Queeney Thrale, their eldest child;
    4. Dr. Samuel Johnson, the renowned lexicographer and writer; and
    5. Giuseppe Baretti, Queeney's Italian tutor and Johnson's friend.

    The trip included:

    Note 11 Oct 1776 
    Baronet Sir William Weller Pepys (1740-1825) wrote these verses to mark their 13th wedding anniversary.
    Give me to bless Domestick Life
    With sweet Repose secure from Strife;
    (Cries every Pedant in a College)
    A Wife not over-stockt with Knowlege;
    This—every Fool who loves to quote
    What Parrot-like he learn’d by rote;
    And every Coxcomb whose Pretence
    To Wisdom marks his want of Sense,
    And all good Huswives skill’d in Darning
    Who rail with much Contempt at Larning:

    And all who place their Sovreign Good in
    The Composition of a Pudding
    Repeat with such Triumphant Air
    Such deep Sagacity—you’d swear
    That Knowledge among Woman kind
    Was deadliest Poyson to the Mind;
    A Crime—which venial if conceal’d
    Like Theft at Sparta,—if reveal’d,
    The Guilty stamps with such disgrace,
    No Culprit dares to Show her Face.

    But tell me You, who dar’d despise
    These vulgar Maxims—who from Eyes
    Which well might grace the loveliest Fair,
    Turn’d not because bright Sense beam’d there;
    But—vent’rous Deed!—in Marriage sought
    A Mind with Stores of Knowledge fraught;
    Tell me through all these thirteen Years,
    Through varying Scenes of hopes and Fears;
    Could Ignorance more faithful prove?
    Could Folly’s Self more warmly love?

    Then long may this Auspicious Morn
    At each still happier Year’s Return
    Tell—what thy Sweet Experience shews,
    That Head and Heart are friend—not Foes.
     
    Note 6 Jul 1777 
    Dr. Samuel Johnson in a letter to Hester Thrale, said …
    I know no man… who is more master of his wife and family than Thrale. If he but holds up a finger, he is obeyed.
     
    Note 10 Sept 1777 
    Hester wrote in Thraliana
    As this is Thraliana—in good Time—I will now write Mr Thrale’s Character in it: it is not because I am in good or ill Humour with him or he with me, for we are not capricious People, but have I believe the same Opinion of each other at all Places and Times. Mr Thrale’s Person is manly, his Countenance agreeable, his Eyes steady and of the deepest Blue: his Look neither soft nor severe, neither sprightly nor gloomy, but thoughtful and Intelligent: his address-is neither caressive nor repulsive, but unaffectedly civil and decorous; and his Manner more completely free from every kind of Trick or Particularity than I ever saw any person’s—he is a Man wholly as I think out of the Power of Mimickry. He loves Money & is diligent to obtain it; but he loves Liberality too, & is willing enough both to give generously & spend fashionably. His Passions either are not strong, or else he keeps them under such Command that they seldom disturb his Tranquillity or his Friends, & it must I think be something more than common which can affect him strongly either with Hope, Fear Anger Love or Joy. His regard for his Father’s Memory is remarkably great, and he has been a most exemplary Brother; though when the house of his favourite Sister was on Fire, & we were alarmed with the Account of it in the Night, I well remember that he never rose, but bidding the Servant who called us, go to her Assistance; quietly turned about & slept to his usual hour. I must give another Trait of his Tranquillity on a different Occasion; he had built great Casks holding 1000 Hogsheads each, & was much pleased with their Profit & Appearance—One Day however he came down to Streatham as usual to dinner & after hearing & talking of a hundred trifles—but I forgot says he to tell you how one of my great Casks is burst & all the Beer run out. Mr Thrale’s Sobriety, & the Decency of his Conversation being wholly free from all Oaths Ribaldry and Profaneness make him a Man exceedingly comfortable to live with, while the easiness of his Temper and slowness to take Offence add greatly to his Value as a domestic Man: Yet I think his Servants do not much love him, and I am not sure that his Children feel much Affection for him: low People almost all indeed agree to abhorr him, as he has none of that officious & cordial Manner which is universally required by them—nor any Skill to dissemble his dislike of their Coarseness—with Regard to his Wife, tho’ little tender of her Person, he is very partial to her Understanding,—but he is obliging to nobody; & confers a Favour less pleasingly than many a Man refuses to confer one. This appears to me to be as just a Character as can be given of the Man with whom I have now lived thirteen Years, and tho’ he is extremely reserved and uncommunicative, yet one must know something of him after so long Acquaintance. Johnson has a very great Degree of Kindness & Esteem for him, & says if he would talk more, his Manner would be very completely that of a perfect Gentleman.
     
    Note 13 Apr 1779 
    Hester Thrale wrote in Thraliana
    In 1779, Hester, who had also lost several children, was unhappy in the thought that she had ceased to be appreciated by her husband. She became jealous of his regard for Sophy Streatfeild of Chiddingstone (1754-1835), a rich widow's daughter. 
    Note 5 Apr 1781 
    Shortly after the death of Henry Thrale, Hester Thrale wrote…
    Streatham. I have now appointed three Days a Week to attend at the Counting house, & wish I could defecate my Mind of Borough Dirt, when I pass the Laystalls at the Stones End; but it will not be yet, it will not be– > The vile Ideas where I fly pursue: Rise in the Grove, even in the Thicket rise, Stain all my Soul, and grovel in my Eyes.

    If an Angel from Heaven had told me 20 Years ago, that the Man I knew by the Name of Dictionary Johnson should one Day become Partner with me in a great Trade, & that we should jointly or separately sign Notes Draughts &c. for 3 or 4 Thousand Pounds of a Morning, how unlikely it would have seemed ever to happen!— unlikely is no Word tho’—it would have seemed incredible: neither of us then being worth a Groat God knows, & both as immeasurably removed from Commerce, as Birth Literature & Inclination could set us. Johnson however; who desires above all other Good the Accumulation of new Ideas, is but too happy with his present Employment; & the Influence I have over him added to his own solid Judgment and Regard for Truth, will at last find it in a small degree difficult to win him from the dirty Delight of seeing his Name in a new Character flaming away at the bottom of Bonds & Leases.
     
    Note 12 Oct 1781  [2
    Hester Thrale wrote in Thraliana
    Yesterday was my Wedding Day; it was a melancholy thing to me to pass it without the Husband of my Youth.
     
    Note 11 Oct 1787  [2
    On their wedding anniversary, Hester wrote in Thraliana
    Why do the people say I never loved my first husband? ’tos a very unjust conjecture. This day on which 24 years ago I was married to him never returns without bringing with it many a tender Remembrance: though ’twas on that Evening when we retired together that I was first alone with Mr. Thrale for five minutes in my whole life. Ours was a match of mere Prudence; and common good Liking, without the smallest Pretensions to passion on either Side: I knew no more of him than any other Gentleman who came to the House, nor did he ever profess other Attachment to me, than such as Esteem of my Character, & Convenience from my Fortune produced. I really had never past five whole Minutes Tête a Tête with him in my life till the Evening of our Wedding Day,—& he himself has said so a Thousand Times. yet God who gave us to each other, knows I did love him dearly; & what honour I can ever do to his Memory shall be done, for he was very generous to me.
     
    Residence From January 1781 - March 1789  Grosvenor Square, Middlesex, England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Note 21 Jul 1813 
    Queeney in a letter to Fanny Burney wrote …
    Do you know what my opinion is? that my mother hated my father. She loved him certainly, as everybody did, for his good qualities and his generosity; but she did not like him, nor any man in the world, well enough to desire to be alone with him.
     
    Children 
    +1. Hester Maria Thrale,   b. 17 Sep 1764, Southwark, Surrey, England Find all individuals with events at this locationd. 31 Mar 1857, Piccadilly, Middlesex, England Find all individuals with events at this location (Age 92 years)
     2. Frances Thrale,   b. 27 Sep 1765, Anchor Brewery, Southwark, Surrey, England Find all individuals with events at this locationd. 6 Oct 1765, Southwark, Surrey, England Find all individuals with events at this location (Age 0 years)
     3. Henry Salusbury Thrale,   b. 15 Feb 1767, Anchor Brewery, Southwark, Surrey, England Find all individuals with events at this locationd. 23 Mar 1776, Anchor Brewery, Southwark, Surrey, England Find all individuals with events at this location (Age 9 years)
     4. Anna Maria Thrale,   b. 1 Apr 1768, Streatham Park, Streatham, Surrey, England Find all individuals with events at this locationd. 21 Mar 1770, 24 Dean Street, Middlesex, England Find all individuals with events at this location (Age 1 year)
     5. Lucy Elizabeth Thrale,   b. 22 Jun 1769, Streatham Park, Streatham, Surrey, England Find all individuals with events at this locationd. 22 Nov 1773, Streatham Park, Streatham, Surrey, England Find all individuals with events at this location (Age 4 years)
     6. Susannah Arabella Thrale,   b. 23 May 1770, Anchor Brewery, Southwark, Surrey, England Find all individuals with events at this locationd. 5 Nov 1858, Knockholt, Kent, England Find all individuals with events at this location (Age 88 years)
     7. Reverend George Salusbury,   b. 1770   d. 1842 (Age 72 years)  [Father: Adopted]  [Mother: Adopted]
     8. Sophia Thrale,   b. 23 Jul 1771, Streatham Park, Streatham, Surrey, England Find all individuals with events at this locationd. 8 Nov 1824, Sandgate, Kent, England Find all individuals with events at this location (Age 53 years)
     9. Penelope Thrale,   b. 15 Sep 1772, Streatham Park, Streatham, Surrey, England Find all individuals with events at this locationd. 15 Sep 1772, Streatham Park, Streatham, Surrey, England Find all individuals with events at this location (Age 0 years)
     10. Ralph Thrale,   b. 8 Nov 1773, Streatham Park, Streatham, Surrey, England Find all individuals with events at this locationd. 13 Jul 1775, 78 West Street, Brighton, Sussex, England Find all individuals with events at this location (Age 1 year)
     11. Frances Anna Thrale,   b. 4 May 1775, Streatham Park, Streatham, Surrey, England Find all individuals with events at this locationd. 9 Dec 1775, Streatham Park, Streatham, Surrey, England Find all individuals with events at this location (Age 0 years)
    +12. Cecilia Margaretta Thrale,   b. 8 Feb 1777, Streatham Park, Streatham, Surrey, England Find all individuals with events at this locationd. 1 May 1857, Brighton, Sussex, England Find all individuals with events at this location (Age 80 years)
     13. Henrietta Sophia Thrale,   b. 21 Jun 1778, Streatham Park, Streatham, Surrey, England Find all individuals with events at this locationd. 25 Apr 1783, Streatham Park, Streatham, Surrey, England Find all individuals with events at this location (Age 4 years)
     14. (miscarried) Thrale,   b. 10 Aug 1779, Anchor Brewery, Southwark, Surrey, England Find all individuals with events at this locationd. 10 Aug 1779, Anchor Brewery, Southwark, Surrey, England Find all individuals with events at this location (Age 0 years)
    Family ID F46  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart
    Last Modified 12 Jul 2024 

  • Event Map
    Link to Google MapsBirth - Address:
    Harrow Corner - Between 1724 and 1730 - Harrow Corner, Southwark, Surrey, England
    Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsEducation - Eton Colleage. - Abt 1733 - Eton, Buckinghamshire, England Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsResidence - As a child, Henry was sent to stay with Richard Temple, 1st Viscount Cobham at Stowe. - Abt 1737 - Stowe House, Buckinghamshire, England Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsEducation - Matriculated from University College, giving age as 15. - 4 Jun 1744 - Oxford, Oxfordshire, England Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsNote - As a young man, he travelled on the European continent to Paris, Rome, Venice, Florence with Lord William Henry Lyttleton Westcote (1724-1808), the expenses of both being met by the generous £1,000 annual allowance that Henry received from his father. - abt. 1746 - Paris, Île-de-France, France Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsLand - Ralph Thrale MP bought the Crowmarsh Estate for £24,000 from the trustees of the Duke of Wharton to expand his landholdings and secure a prestigious country estate. On Ralph's death, it passed to his son Henry Thrale, and following Henry's death, was sold in 1783 to Thomas Walker for £18,000. - 10 Apr 1758 - Crowmarsh Battle Farm, Oxfordshire, England Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsProperty - 10 Apr 1758 - Streatham Park, Streatham, Surrey, England Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsProperty - Inherited from his father Ralph Thrale MP. - 10 Apr 1758 - 78 West Street, Brighton, Sussex, England Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsOccupation - Inherited from his father Ralph Thrale MP. - 10 Apr 1758 - Anchor Brewery, Southwark, Surrey, England Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsNote - Henry was invited to Offley Place by Hester’s uncle, Judge Sir Thomas Salusbury and was introduced to Hester Thrale who was aged 20 or 21. Henry was a solid respectable man who was kindly towards Hester and she wrote that Henry was …
    Nearly the handsomest man in England.
    However, she did not want to marry him. Hester appealed to her father upon his return. John Salusbury had no intention of marrying his daughter to Henry, as Henry's father and grandfather had lived in the cottage now being used by his brother, Sir Thomas Salusbury as a dog kennel. John Salusbury quarrelled with his brother Sir Thomas and took his wife and daughter to London. Sir Thomas proposed their marriage whilst her father was away in Ireland with George Montagu-Dunk, 2nd Earl of Halifax, President of the Board of Trade. This was agreed by her mother after uncle Sir Thomas promised to make a settlement in her favour of £5,000 if Hester married Henry. - 1762 - Offley, Hertfordshire, England
    Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsMarriage - 11 Oct 1763 - Saint Anne's Church, Soho, Middlesex, England Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsElection - Member of Parliament. 20 Nov 1765 -13 Sep 1980. - 20 Nov 1765 - Southwark, Surrey, England Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsNote - From July to September 1774, Dr. Samuel Johnson and the Thrales toured North Wales. For Hester Thrale, the journey was personally significant, revealing cultural tensions with Johnson and influencing her writing. Johnson kept a diary which has since been published. - Jul 1774 - Wales Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsNote - 14 Sept 1775 - Paris, Île-de-France, France Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsHobbies - Kept a pack of hounds and a hunting box near Croydon. - - Croydon, Surrey, England Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsLand - In 1778 Henry Thrale considered - but did not complete - the purchase of Bardsey Island. - 1778 - Bardsey Island, Gwynedd, Wales Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsMedical - Hester Thrale wrote …
    On the Sunday 1st of April I went to hear the Bishop of Peterborough preach at May Fair Chapel: & though the Sermon had nothing in it particularly pathetic, I could not keep my Tears within my Eyes: I spent the Evening however at Lady Rothes’s, and was chearful; found Sir John Lade, Johnson and Boswell with Mr Thrale at my return to the Square: on Monday Morning Mr Evans came to breakfast, Sir Philip and Dr Johnson to Dinner – so did Baretti: Mr Thrale eat voraciously–so voraciously – that encouraged by Jebb & Pepys who had charged me so to do – l checked him rather severely, & Mr Johnson added these remarkable Words:
    Sir—after the Denuniciation of your Physicians this Morning, such eating is little better than Suicide
    He did not however desist, & Sir Philip said he eat apparently in Defiance of Controul, & that it was better for us to say nothing to him: Johnson observed that he thought so too, & that he spoke more from a Sense of Duty than a Hope of Success. Baretti & them two spent the Evening with me, & I was enumerating the People who were to meet the Indian Ambassadors on the Wednesday — I had been to Negri’s & bespoke an elegant Entertainment. - 2 Apr 1781 - Grosvenor Square, Middlesex, England
    Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsMedical - Hester Thrale wrote …
    On the next day Tuesday 3d Mrs Hinchliffe called on me in the Morning to go see Webber’s Drawings of Francesco Roncaglia,: Sea Rareties–we met the Smelts, the Ords, & numberless Blues there, & displayed our Pedantry at our Pleasure: going & coming however I quite teized Mrs Hinchliffe with my lowspirited Terrors about Mr Thrale, who had not all this while one Symptom worse than he had had for Months; tho’ the Physicians this Tuesday Morning agreed that a Continuation of such dinners as he had lately made, would soon dispatch a Life so precarious & uncertain. When I came home to dress–Piozzi,–who was always admitted to the Toilette, & sate in the next Room teaching Hester to sing; began lamenting that he was engaged to Mrs Locke on the following Evening when I had such a World of Company to meet these fine Orientals: he had however engaged Roncaglia & Sacchini to begin with–and would make a point of coming himself at nine o’Clock if possible.

    I gave him the Money I had collected for his Benefit 35£ I remember, it was—a Bankers Note, and I burst out o’crying & said I was sure I should not go to it: the Man was shocked, & wondered what I meant; Nay—says I—‘tis mere lowness of Spirits, for Mr Thrale is very well now, & gone out in his Carriage to spit Cards as I call’d it—sputar le Carte.

    Just then came a Letter from Dr Pepys, insisting to speak with me in the Afternoon; & tho’ there was nothing very particular in the Letter considering our Intimacy—I burst out o’crying again, read the Letter to Piozzi who could not understand it, & threw myself into an Agony, saying I was sure Mr Thrale would dye. The tenderhearted Italian was affected, bid me not despair so, but recollect some precepts he had heard Dr Johnson give me one Day; & then turn’d to me with a good deal of Expression in his Manner, rather too much-it affected me.—and sung Rasserena il tuo bel Ciglio &c &c Well! he left us in a quarter of an hour, & Miss Owen came to Dinner, and Mr Thrale came home so well! & in such Spirits! he had invited more People to my Concert or Conversatione or musical party of the next day, & was delighted to think what a Show we should make. He eat however more than enormously;—six things the Day before, & eight on this Day, with Strong Beer in such Quantities! the very Servants were frighted, & when Pepys came in the Evening he said this could not last—either there must be legal Restraint or certain Death. Dear Mrs Byron[^8] spent ye evening with me, & Mr Crutcheley came from Sunninghill to be ready for the morrow’s Flash. Johnson was at the Bishop of Chester’s.

    I went down in the Course of the Afternoon to see after my master as usual, and found him, not asleep, but sitting on his Bed with his Legs up—because as he express’d it. I kiss’d him, & said how good he was to be so careful of himself—he enquired who was above; but had no Disposition to come up Stairs. Miss Owen & Mrs Byron now took their Leave; the Dr had been gone about 20 Minutes when Hester went down to see her Papa, & found him on the Floor. what’s the meaning of this? says She in an Agony—I chuse it, replies Mr Thrale firmly;
    I lie so o’purpose;
    She ran however to call his Valet who was gone out—happy to leave him so particularly well as he thought—when my Servant went instead, Mr Thrale bid him be gone, in a firm Tone: & added that he was very well, & chose to lie so. by this Time however Mr Crutchley was ran down at Hetty’s Intreaty, & I had sent to fetch Pepys back; he was got but into Upper Brook Street, & found his Friend in a most violent Fit of the Apoplexy from which he only recovered to relapse into another, everyone growing weaker as his Strength grew less till six o’Clock on Wednesday Morning 4: April 1781. Sir Richd Jebb, who was fetched at the beginning of the Distress, seeing Death certain, quitted the House without even prescribing; Pepys did all that could be done, & Johnson who was sent for at 11 o’Clock never left him, for while breath remain’d he still hoped. I ventured in once, & saw them cutting his Clothes off to bleed him, but I saw no more.
    - 3 Apr 1781 - Grosvenor Square, Middlesex, England
    Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsDeath - Cause: his strokes were largely caused by Henry's voracious appetite for large indulgent meals, a - 4 Apr 1781 - Grosvenor Square, Middlesex, England Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsBurial - 11 Apr 1781 - Saint Leonards Church, Streatham, Surrey, England Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsResidence - From January 1781 - March 1789 - Grosvenor Square, Middlesex, England Link to Google Earth
     = Link to Google Earth 
    Pin Legend  : Address       : Location       : City/Town       : County/Shire       : State/Province       : Country       : Not Set

  • Photos
    Headshot of Henry Thrale from Sir Joshua Reynolds 1777 portrait
    Headshot of Henry Thrale from Sir Joshua Reynolds 1777 portrait
    Henry Thrale in 1777
    Henry Thrale in 1777
    Painting by Sir Joshua Reynolds. One of the Streatham Worthies.

    Hester Thrale bequeathed the portrait of her husband to her daughter Susannah Arabella Thrale, who in turn gave it to her sister Queeney. Queeney passed it to her daughter Lady William Osborne. On her death in 1892 the portrait passed to the Lansdowne family with Tulliallan Castle.

    During the early 20th Century the portrait was sold at Christies by the Marquis of Lansdowne. Hester Lynch Thrale wrote verses about this portrait.
    Henry Thrale c.1770-1780 by Francis Wheatley
    Henry Thrale c.1770-1780 by Francis Wheatley
    Oil on canvas.
    90.5 x 71.1 cm

    Histories
    The Hertfordshire Descent of Henry Thrale
    The Hertfordshire Descent of Henry Thrale
    J.H. Busby.Notes and Queries, p.495-498. 13 November 1948.
    Thraliana
    Thraliana
    The Diary of Mrs. Hester Lynch Thrale (later Mrs. Piozzi) 1776-1809
    Henry & Hester's friends and acquaintences
    Henry & Hester's friends and acquaintences
    Friends and guests of Henry Thrale and Hester Lynch Thrale née Salusbury (in alphabetical surname order)
    Arthur Murphy (1727-1805)
    Arthur Murphy (1727-1805)
    Henry Thrale's oldest and dearest friend. It was Arthur Murphy who introduced Dr. Samuel Johnson to the Thrales in January 1765. He was a barrister, journalist, actor, biographer, translator and playwright. One of the most popular comic dramatists of the second half of the eighteenth century, from which he made his fortune. He occasionally used the pseudonym, 'Charles Ranger'.
    Hester Piozzi' account of her London residences
    Hester Piozzi' account of her London residences
    Written on 25 June 1804.
    Thrale Parliamentarians
    Thrale Parliamentarians
    Thrales, their spouses, and others with close family connections were elected as Members of Parliament. This is not a definitive list. Please contact us if you know of others.
    Anchor Brewery, Bankside, London.
    Anchor Brewery, Bankside, London.
    An account of its history from 1616 until 1986, including a period of 52 years in which it was owned by Ralph and Henry Thrale between 1729 & 1781.

  • Sources 
    1. [S16] Gentleman's Magazine, October 1763 (Reliability: 3).

    2. [S40] Katherine C Balderston, Thraliana, (Oxford University Press 1951).